All references are to Painting as an Art unless otherwise indicated

Wollheim seems to argue that we have a universal preconceptual capacity for seeing in, I am not sure that this subset of perception alone can explain our seeing something in a picture unless we argue that we have innate sensory concepts of what we see.

Gaut proposes E.D. Hirsch as a suitable a example of a proponent of simple Intentionalism.

Freud postulated the censor as the entity that blocks the access to our own unconscious. The unconscious bypasses the censor and finds expression only in certain cases such as symptoms, dreams etc. Painting here seems to be another way of uncovering and providing embodiment for unconscious phenomena that is 'visible' to others in a way that may not be visible to the agent who requires analysis in order to make this unconscious action conscious for himself.

Both Wollheim and Danto use the notion of seeing in 'terms of' proposed by Hanson, N.R. (1961) Patterns of Discovery (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press) Hanson's theory that perception is 'theory loaded' is a particular version of the notion that what is visible is relative to background information.

Wollheim disagrees with poststructuralist semiotics but finds C.S. Peirce's version of semiotics compatible with his view because of his notion of 'motivated' sign and how they relate to the world.